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(Science Daily) Three papers reveal that around three-quarters of cancer patients who have major depression are not currently receiving treatment for depression, and that a new integrated treatment program is strikingly more effective at reducing depression and improving quality of life than current care.
Breast Cancer
(TIME) Ladies, that swath of fabric snapped around your rib cage is not a death trap. A new study … found that among 1,500 women, there was no association between bra wearing and breast-cancer risk.
(LiveScience) Taking soy protein supplements may lead to some concerning genetic changes for women with breast cancer, a new study suggests.
(Science Daily) When factoring in what is now known about breast cancer biology and heterogeneity, breast conserving therapy (BCT) may offer a greater survival benefit over mastectomy to women with early stage, hormone-receptor positive disease, according to research.
(Reuters Health) More than half of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer consider removal of the second, unaffected breast to prevent cancer spread, and according to a new survey, they tend to have more anxiety and less knowledge about breast cancer than women who don't consider CPM. “There is so much information about breast cancer that it’s easy for patients to get overwhelmed. Interventions that address patient anxiety and lack of knowledge are needed to facilitate more informed decision making for patients,” Dr. Katharine Yao … said.
(Science Daily) Despite its acceptance as standard of care for early stage breast cancer almost 25 years ago, barriers still exist that preclude patients from receiving breast conserving therapy (BCT), with some still opting for a mastectomy, according to research.
More . . .
New Biomarker Highly Promising for Predicting Breast Cancer Outcomes
(Science Daily) A protein named p66ShcA shows promise as a biomarker to identify breast cancers with poor prognoses, according to research. The ability to predict prognosis is critical to management of treatment. A patient with a good prognosis can be spared aggressive treatment, with its oft-unpleasant side effects. But failure to apply aggressive treatment to an aggressive tumor can lead to death.
(Science Daily) An experimental regimen of once-weekly breast irradiation following lumpectomy provides more convenience to patients at a lower cost, results in better completion rates of prescribed radiation treatment, and produces cosmetic outcomes comparable to the current standard of daily radiation, researchers report.
Community: This is a welcome development. Daily treatments for a number of weeks was pretty difficult.
(Science Daily) A major American study could lead to improvements in outcomes for women with triple-negative breast cancer, an aggressive form of the disease that disproportionately affects younger women.
(Science Daily) The experimental drug nintedanib, combined with standard chemotherapy with paclitaxel, causes a total remission of tumors in 50 percent of patients suffering from early HER-2-negative breast cancer, the most common type of breast cancer.
(University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center) A new breast cancer vaccine candidate, GP2, provides further evidence of the potential of immunotherapy in preventing disease recurrence.
Lung Cancer
(Tech Times) Researchers at the US National Cancer Institute found that the overall rate of lung cancer has dropped by 12 percent. "The good news is that lung cancer rates are declining," said Denise Riedel Lewis, lead author of the study. "However, it's not as clear for certain subtypes, and we are not exactly sure of the reasons behind these increases." Riedel Lewis said she thinks part of the reason for the decline is the decrease in smoking.
(Voice of America) Serious lung ailments may increase the risk of developing lung cancer, according to a new report, but researchers did not find evidence the diseases cause cancer. In an analysis of data on more than 25,000 people, researchers found that people who had chronic bronchitis, emphysema or pneumonia had an increased risk of developing lung cancer. Suffering from all three conferred a higher risk than having chronic bronchitis alone. Asthma and tuberculosis were not associated with a higher lung cancer risk.
(Science Daily) Endoscopic biopsy of lymph nodes between the two lungs (mediastinum) is a sensitive and accurate technique that can replace mediastinal surgery for staging lung cancer in patients with potentially resectable tumors. The new study shows that it is not necessary to perform surgery to confirm negative results obtained through the endoscopic approach during the pre-operative evaluation of patients with this type of cancer. This discovery has many advantages for both the patients and the health-care system.
(Science Daily) Patients with inoperable, early-stage lung cancer who receive stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) have a five-year survival rate of 40 percent, according to research presented today at the American Society for Radiation Oncology's (ASTRO's) 56th Annual Meeting. Such a positive survival rate is encouraging considering that historically conventional RT resulted in poor tumor control for patients with inoperable lung cancer. This study is an update of RTOG 02362, originally published in 20101, and also conducted by the original researchers to evaluate tumor control rates and side effects for patients at five years post-treatment.
(Science Daily) As the thoracic radiotherapy is well tolerated, it should to be routinely offered to all SCLC patients with extensive disease whose cancer responds to chemotherapy, experts report. SCLC is an aggressive cancer that accounts for about 13% of all lung cancers. The majority of patients present with extensive disease that has spread to other areas of the body.
(Science Daily) A large, international analysis of patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) indicates that a patient’s overall survival (OS) rate can be related to factors including the timing of when metastases develop and lymph node involvement, and that aggressive treatment for “low-risk” patients leads to a five-year OS rate of 47.8 percent, according to new research.
(Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center) New findings show that a combination of two microRNAs suppressed tumor growth in an an animal model of non-small-cell lung cancer.
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Small RNA molecules, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), offer tremendous potential as new therapeutic agents to inhibit cancer-cell growth… [R]esearchers at the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT report that they have successfully delivered small RNA therapies in a clinically relevant mouse model of lung cancer to slow and shrink tumor growth. Their research offers promise for personalized RNA combination therapies to improve therapeutic response.
Liver Cancer
(Tufts University) [I]t's as exciting as it is rare when a breakthrough occurs that may lead to more immediate relief for patients. Such may be the case with liver cancer, thanks to research by Arlin Rogers…, who has found that prolactin, a hormone that helps nursing mothers produce milk, may help prevent the disease.
Colon Cancer
(Science Daily) Unexpected results from an ongoing experiment led to a potentially important discovery that could have an impact on how cancer researchers test anti-cancer therapies in mice, and possibly prevent colon cancer in people.
Ovarian Cancer
(Science Daily) Ovarian cancer is the fourth leading cause of death in American women, with about 22,000 diagnosed and 14,000 dying from the disease each year. September is Ovarian Cancer Awareness month and experts are sharing tips on prevention.
(University of Manchester) Researchers from The University of Manchester and The Christie NHS Foundation Trust -- both part of Manchester Cancer Research Centre -- say the test could be developed and used in hospitals within the next few years.
Kidney Cancer
(Science Daily) Needle-guided tumor destruction procedures offer near equivalent lengths of local cancer control compared to surgery for patients with small kidney cancer tumors, according to researchers. “If validated, these data suggest that an update to clinical guidelines would be warranted,” says the study’s lead author.
Bladder Cancer
(Science Daily) One in 60 people over the age of 60 who had invisible blood in their urine -- identified by their GP testing their urine -- transpired to have bladder cancer, researchers report. The figure was around half of those who had visible blood in their urine -- the best known indicator of bladder cancer. However, it was still higher than figures for other potential symptoms of bladder cancer that warrant further investigation.
Prostate Cancer
(Science Daily) Men with prostate cancer may one day be able to predict when and how much various treatments will impact their urinary and sexual functioning, thanks in part to new findings.
(Science Daily) Prostate cancer patients who receive high-dose radiation therapy (HDRT) followed by a longer period of hormone suppression therapy, or androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), have higher five-year biochemical, disease-free survival (bDFS) and overall survival rates compared to patients who receive HDRT and a shorter duration of ADT, according to new research.
(Science Daily) Radiation therapy with concurrent paclitaxel chemotherapy following surgery is an effective treatment for patients with high-risk endometrial cancer, according to a study. Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy. Patients with early-stage disease are typically treated with surgery alone; however, patients with advanced endometrial cancer have higher instances of local or distant recurrence.
(Science Daily) Prostate cancer patients who received hypofractionated (HPFX) radiation therapy (RT) reported that their quality of life, as well as bladder and bowel function were at similar levels before and after RT, according to new research.
(Science Daily) A comparison of five-year sexual function outcomes, as reported by patients treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) versus combination EBRT plus brachytherapy, indicates that the utilization of vessel-sparing radiation therapy makes cure possible without compromising long-term sexual function, according to new research.
Cervical Cancer
(Reuters) A simple urine test for the virus that causes cervical cancer could offer a less invasive and more acceptable alternative to the conventional cervical smear test, researchers said on Tuesday. In a study comparing the accuracy of urine sample testing with smear testing conducted by a doctor, scientists from Britain and Spain found the results were good and said using the urine test to detect human papillomavirus (HPV) could lead to more women agreeing to be screened.
(Science Daily) Combining a standard chemotherapy drug with a second drug that stops cells from dividing improves both the survival and response rates for those with advanced cervical cancer, a new study finds. Cervical cancer used to be the leading cause of cancer death for women in the U.S., according to the CDC, but cases and deaths have declined over the years as more women have received regular Pap tests.
(Science Daily) Using the genome editing tool known as CRISPR, researchers were able to selectively silence two genes in human papilloma virus that are responsible for the growth and survival of cervical carcinoma cells. After silencing the two HPV genes, the cancer cell's normal self-destruct machinery went into action.
Blood Cancers
(Science Daily) Patients with stage I and II Hodgkin’s Disease who receive consolidated radiation therapy (RT) have a higher 10-year survival rate of 84 percent, compared to 76 percent for patients who did not receive RT; and, the data also shows a decrease in utilization of RT, according to new research.
(Science Daily) Researchers have identified a genetic/molecular network that fuels a high-risk and aggressive form of acute myeloid leukemia and its precursor disease myelodysplastic syndrome -- providing a possible therapeutic strategy for an essentially untreatable form of the blood cancer.
Skin Cancer
(Reuters Health) Pilots and flight attendants may be at an increased risk of developing the most deadly form of skin cancer, suggests a new analysis. While the study cannot pinpoint why flight crews are at higher risk, the researchers suggest it could be the result of greater exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which causes damage to the DNA in skin cells, at high altitudes.
(LiveScience) Yes, even people with dark skin can get skin cancer.
(Science Daily) The varying health risks from exposure to natural uranium are well established, but now researchers have identified a new target organ for uranium exposure: skin. "Our hypothesis is that if uranium is photoactivated by UV radiation it could be more harmful to skin than either exposure alone," the lead researcher said.
(Science Daily) A genetic mutation caused by ultraviolet light is likely the driving force behind millions of human skin cancers, according to researchers. The mutation occurs in a gene called KNSTRN, which is involved in helping cells divide their DNA equally during cell division.
(Science Daily) Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer, causing more than 75 percent of skin-cancer deaths. The thicker the melanoma tumor, the more likely it will spread and the deadlier it becomes. Now, a team of researchers has developed a new hand-held device that uses lasers and sound waves that may change the way doctors treat and diagnose melanoma. The tool is ready for commercialization and clinical trials.
(Reuters) U.S. regulators on Thursday approved the use of Merck & Co Inc's immuno-oncology drug Keytruda, also known as pembrolizumab, as a treatment for patients with advanced melanoma who are no longer responding to other therapies. The decision marks the first U.S. approval for a promising new class designed to help the body's own immune system fend off cancer by blocking a protein known as Programmed Death receptor (PD-1), or a related target known as PD-L1, used by tumors to evade disease-fighting cells.
Brain Cancer
(Science Daily) Brain tumors fly under the radar of the body’s defense forces by coating their cells with extra amounts of a specific protein, new research shows. Like a stealth fighter jet, the coating means the cells evade detection by the early-warning immune system that should detect and kill them.
(Science Daily) The Myc protein plays a key role in the development of several tumor types and its inhibition could therefore prove an effective therapy against many different cancers. Previous studies successfully blocked Myc through expression of an inhibitor, resulting in the eradication of lung tumors in preclinical models.
(Science Daily) Compounds that target brain cancer have been recently developed by researchers. The team synthesized a first-of-its-kind inhibitor that prevents the activity of an enzyme called neuraminidase. Although flu viruses use enzymes with the same mechanism as part of the process of infection, human cells use their own forms of the enzyme in many biological processes.
(Science Daily) A novel molecular pathway that causes an aggressive form of medulloblastoma has been identified by researchers. Now scientists suggest repurposing an anti-depressant medication to target medulloblastoma to help combat one of the most common brain cancers in children. The scientists say their laboratory findings in mouse models of the disease could lead to a more targeted and effective molecular therapy that would also reduce the harmful side effects of current treatments.
General
(University of Twente) Researchers at the UT Research Institute MIRA have developed a new method for tracing the sentinel lymph node, the node by which you can tell whether a patient's cancer has spread. Martijn Visscher demonstrated that you can find the node using magnetic nanoparticles, a simple set-up and a clever way of measuring. The patented find, which can quickly be put into practice, will prevent patients from being unnecessarily exposed to ionizing radiation.
(Science Daily) The anti-cancer effect of the antimalarial agent chloroquine when combined with conventional chemotherapy has been well documented. To date, it was assumed that chloroquine increases the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapy by means of a direct effect on the cancer cells. However, a recent study has demonstrated that chloroquine also normalizes the abnormal blood vessels in tumors. This blood vessel normalization results in an increased barrier function on the one hand, and in enhanced tumor perfusion on the other hand, which increases the response of the tumor to chemotherapy.
(Science Daily) Retinoic acid is a form of vitamin A that is used to treat and help prevent the recurrence of a variety of cancers, but for some patients the drug is not effective. The reason for this resistance was unclear until this week when researchers demonstrated that a protein known as AEG-1 blocks the effects of retinoic acid in leukemia and liver cancer. Because AEG-1 is overexpressed in nearly every cancer, these findings could impact the care of countless cancer patients.
(Science Daily) A drug originally designed for killing a limited type of cancer cells with DNA repair defects could potentially be used to treat leukemia and other cancers, scientists have found. In this study, the research team also showed the link between the RUNX family genes and the pathway of a rare human congenital disease called Fanconi anemia for the first time.
(Science Daily) An antibody against the protein EphA3, found in the micro-environment of solid cancers, has anti-tumor effects, an international team of scientists has shown. As EphA3 is present in normal organs only during embryonic development but is expressed in blood cancers and in solid tumors, this antibody-based approach may be a suitable candidate treatment for solid tumors.
(Science Daily) Scientists have disrupted the function of MYC, a cancer regulator thought to be “undruggable.” The researchers found that a credit card-like molecule they developed moves in and disrupts critical interactions between MYC and its binding partner. The study also shows the drug candidate can stop tumor growth in animal models.
(Science Daily) Dynamic nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed that could provide an arsenal of applications to diagnose and treat cancer. Built on an easy-to-make polymer, these particles can be used as contrast agents to light up tumors for MRI and PET scans or deliver chemo and other therapies to destroy tumors. In addition, the particles are biocompatible and have shown no toxicity.
(Medical Xpress) In addition to their DNA nanotechnology-based approach being a new drug-delivery paradigm for cancer therapy and other diseases, the scientists say their approach could also be used to specifically monitor activity in the body to prevent disease or perhaps to diagnose disease earlier than currently possible. "Refillable drug delivery devices," [Dr. Yevgeny] Brudno concludes, "could be converted to monitoring devices that are regularly refilled with molecules necessary for their activity."
(Science Daily) Researchers have devised a new way to separate cells by exposing them to sound waves as they flow through a tiny channel. Their device, about the size of a dime, could be used to detect the extremely rare tumor cells that circulate in cancer patients' blood, helping doctors predict whether a tumor is going to spread.
(University of Alberta Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry) A new study from the research group of Dr. John Lewis at the University of Alberta (Edmonton, AB) and the Lawson Health Research Institute (London, ON) has confirmed that "invadopodia" play a key role in the spread of cancer. The study … shows preventing these tentacle-like structures from forming can stop the spread of cancer entirely.
(Science Daily) While many scientists are trying to prevent the onset of a cancer defense mechanism known as autophagy, other researchers are leveraging it in a new therapy that causes the process to culminate in cell death rather than survival.
(The Bawmann Group) A team of scientists from the University of Colorado School of Medicine has reported the breakthrough discovery of a process to expand production of stem cells used to treat cancer patients. These findings could have implications that extend beyond cancer, including treatments for inborn immunodeficiency and metabolic conditions and autoimmune diseases.
(Science Daily) The protein RBM4, a molecule crucial to the process of gene splicing, is drastically decreased in multiple forms of human cancer, including lung and breast cancers, researchers have discovered. The finding offers a new route toward therapies that can thwart the altered genetic pathways that allow cancer cells to proliferate and spread.

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