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More Recent Research on Memory and Neurological Disease

(Science Daily) [A new study] found that people with [mild cognitive impairment (MCI)] are impaired in several aspects of executive functioning, the biggest being inhibitory control… Adults with MCI also had trouble with tests that measure the ability to plan and organize.
(Science Daily) In a study…, researchers claim that because Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and Parkinson's Disease each involve ocular control and attention dysfunctions, they can be easily identified through an evaluation of how patients move their eyes while they watch television.
(Science Daily) Sleep disruptions may be among the earliest indicators of Alzheimer's disease, scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis report… Working in a mouse model, the researchers found that when the first signs of Alzheimer's plaques appear in the brain, the normal sleep-wake cycle is significantly disrupted.
(MyHealthNewsDaily) Brain cells may undergo aging in much the same way as skin cells do — with one aging cell affecting many of its neighbors, a new study from England says. Researchers found that aging mouse neurons produced several substances, including free radicals and other molecules that can promote inflammation and alter DNA, which can damage nearby cells.
(Science Daily) Scientists have found that eliminating an enzyme from mice with symptoms of Alzheimer's disease leads to a 90 percent reduction in the compounds responsible for formation of the plaques linked to Alzheimer's disease. That is the most dramatic reduction in this compound reported to date in published research.
(Science Daily) How does one's experience of an event get translated into a memory that can be accessed months, even years later? A team … has come closer to answering that question, identifying key molecules that help convert short-term memories into long-term ones. These proteins may offer a target for drugs that can enhance memory, alleviating some of the cognitive symptoms that characterize conditions including schizophrenia, depression and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases.
(Science Daily) [Researchers] have discovered how to store diverse forms of artificial short-term memories in isolated brain tissue. "This is the first time anyone has found a way to store information over seconds about both temporal sequences and stimulus patterns directly in brain tissue," says Dr. [Ben W.] Strowbridge. "This paves the way for future research to identify the specific brain circuits that allow us to form short-term memories."
(Science Daily) [Researchers] compared a group of current smokers with two groups of non-smokers -- those who were regularly exposed to second-hand smoke and those who were not… [They] found that the non-smokers who had been exposed to second-hand smoke forgot almost 20% more in the memory tests than those non-smokers not exposed. However, both groups out-performed the current smokers who forgot 30% more than those who were not exposed to second-hand smoking.
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