A community for people who want to remain as healthy as possible as we age.

More depression in Western cultures

(UPI) U.S. researchers say those who genetically tend to depression do better in collectivist East Asian cultures compared to individualistic Western cultures.

The study … suggests a genetic vulnerability to depression is much more likely to be realized in individualistic Western cultures than in an East Asian culture that is more about "we" than "me" and provides more social support.

"Such support seems to buffer vulnerable individuals from the environmental risks or stressors that serve as triggers to depressive episodes," lead author Joan Chiao of Northwestern University.

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Fructose May Raise Blood Pressure

(HealthDay News) Research suggests that a diet high in fructose, a common sweetener, boosts the risk of high blood pressure.

High-fructose corn syrup is found in many processed foods and beverages. Americans consume 30 percent more fructose now than 20 years ago, and researchers have linked higher fructose consumption to the growing obesity epidemic. But scientists weren't sure if a connection existed between fructose consumption and high blood pressure.

In a new study, [researchers] found that those who consumed more than 74 grams of fructose per day -- that's the equivalent of the amount in 2.5 sweetened soft drinks -- boosted their risk of high blood pressure by 28 percent to 87 percent, depending on the level of hypertension.

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Can Americans Change Their Taste for the Sweet and Salty?

(U.S. News & World Report) There's no question that the average American has a sweet—and a salty—tooth. The American HeartAssociation says we consume about 355 calories per day of sugar, more than three times its new recommended daily limit of 100 calories for women and twice the 150-calorie cap for men. And the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said in March that the average American age 2 or over consumes 3,436 milligrams of sodium per day; nearly 70 percent of adults fall into higher-risk groups that should take in only 1,500 mg per day, and the rest of us are advised to top out at 2,300 mg…

Even newborns have a strong positive response to sweet, says Gary Beauchamp, director of the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia… Less clear is how the preference for salt develops, says Beauchamp. Not all infants like the taste, but "by the time they're 2 or 3, they show a high preference for salty foods, just like adults," he says. In fact, kids like things even saltier than adults…

But an ability to change our tastes, even if over time, is what the health experts are banking on, and some manufacturers are already working on it…

Want to try your own sweet and salt reduction campaign? Scan packaged food labels for lower-sodium or lower-sugar offerings, and cook with fresh food that doesn't already include a lot of salt and added sugar. [Lilian Cheung, a lecturer at Harvard,] advises you to be adventurous and try new flavors: coconut, ginger, sesame, curry, passion fruit, tarragon, and rosemary, for instance. "When you have ingredients like that on your palate, the levels of sweetness and saltiness aren't the centerpiece."

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Pushing Fresh Produce Instead of Cookies at the Corner Market

(New York Times) Until recently, small corner grocery stores were seen by public health officials as part of the obesity problem.

The stores, predominantly family-owned, offered convenience, but the accent was on snack chips, canned goods and sugary drinks. Now, because they are often the sole source of groceries in areas with no full-size supermarket, the stores are becoming linchpins in public health campaigns.

“If you are educating people to make good choices, but those choices aren’t available nearby and they don’t have a car to drive out to the suburbs to the supermarket, or an hour to ride two buses to get there,” said Kai Siedenburg, of the Community Food Security Coalition…, “then it’s really hard for them to make good choices.”

Store owners in Cleveland, New York, Louisville and elsewhere are being approached by public health organizations and economic development agencies with offers of new equipment, marketing expertise or neighborhood promotions to encourage them to stock more fresh produce, whole wheat bread and other healthy offerings.

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Bikes and cars: Can we share the road?

(Los Angeles Times) The number of people riding bicycles has exploded in recent years. U.S. census statistics released in September show a 43% increase in bike commuting nationwide between 2000 and 2008, and Courion's bike club, which often rides in Mandeville Canyon, has seen its numbers nearly double to nearly 500 in the last several years.

This surge of new bicycles on the road frustrates some motorists, leading to antagonism and altercations of which the Mandeville Canyon incident is an extreme example. And though data suggest that cycling fatalities have actually fallen nationwide, one new study suggests that the injuries cyclists suffer in traffic accidents are becoming more severe…

Cycling enthusiasts cite numbers that suggest the benefits of cycling far outweigh the risks… In a seminal and oft-cited 1992 report -- "Cycling: Towards Health and Safety" -- Mayer Hillman, a senior fellow emeritus of the Policy Studies Institute in the U.K., calculated that bicycling's health benefits -- such as reductions in cancer, heart disease and diabetes -- outweigh its risks by a factor of 20 to 1.

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Practice may not make perfect, but it could bring increased happiness later

(Los Angeles Times) Frustrating though trying and trying again may be at the time, such practice appears to pay off psychologically down the road…

[Researches] found that behaviors designed to enhance feelings of autonomy (doing what one wants rather than what one is told) and relatedness (a sense of connection to others) made people feel good at the time. Behaviors designed to enhance competence didn't. Such activities are stressful, as it turns out, and they tend to make people feel less than satisfied at the time.

At the same time, feelings of competence -- as with autonomy and relatedness -- were linked to overall satisfaction, or happiness with life.

The researchers write in their conclusion: "…[O]ptimal well-being likely cannot be attained by only selecting enjoyable and stress-free behaviors."

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Live Longer with This Red Winter Stew

(RealAge.com) Put the brakes on the ravages of time with a hearty and delicious bowl of chili.

You'll get plenty of zinc, thanks to the rich red kidney beans in the stew. And a new small study showed that zinc may help both preventand reverse age-inducing damage to DNA…

Zinc intake is so important to staying young that when middle-aged men in a study went from adequate zinc intake to zinc deficiency, they showed more breaks in certain DNA strands. And guess what happened when they were placed back on a zinc-rich diet? You got it -- damage to DNA strands decreased significantly, suggesting that injured strands were repaired…

You want healthy DNA, because damaged DNA can speed the aging process and increase your risk for conditions like cancer and Alzheimer's disease.

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Coffee may lower endometrial cancer risk

(Reuters Health) Women dread a diagnosis of endometrial cancer, but those who drink at least two cups of caffeinated coffee a day may have a lower risk for this cancer of cells lining the uterus.

Coffee drinking seemed to particularly protect overweight and obese women, study co-author Dr. Emilie Friberg [said].

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High-definition Colonoscopy Detects More Polyps, Researchers Say

(Science Daily) High-definition (HD) colonoscopy is much more sensitive than standard colonoscopy in finding polyps that could morph into cancer, say researchers at the Mayo Clinic campus in Florida.

They say their findings … are not only important because a large group (2,430) of patients participated, but they resulted from the only study to date that has compared these two methods in a general clinical practice setting, among all the patients who needed a colonoscopy and with all the physicians who performed it.

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Researchers Find Brain Cell Transplants Help Repair Neural Damage

(Science Daily) A Swiss research team has found that using an animal's own brain cells (autologous transplant) to replace degenerated neurons in select brain areas of donor primates with simulated but asymptomatic Parkinson's disease and previously in a motor cortex lesion model, provides a degree of brain protection and may be useful in repairing brain lesions and restoring function.

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Regeneration Can Be Achieved After Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

(Science Daily) Scientists … report that regeneration of central nervous system axons can be achieved in rats even when treatment delayed is more than a year after the original spinal cord injury.

"The good news is that when axons have been cut due to spinal cord injury, they can be coaxed to regenerate if a combination of treatments is applied," said lead author Mark Tuszynski, MD… "The chronically injured axon is not dead."

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Surgery, Illness Not Linked to Mental Decline in Seniors

(HealthDay News) Illness and surgery don't contribute to long-term cognitive decline in seniors and don't accelerate progression of dementia, researchers say.

The findings of a new study … challenge the widely held belief that elderly patients suffer major deterioration in mental function after surgery.

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Making health care about health

(McClatchy-Tribune News Service) Every serious proposal for health reform includes measures to promote healthier lifestyles and minimize the burden of disease. In a significant move, the federal government last month earmarked $650 million in grants – the largest sum ever – for community programs designed to reduce tobacco use, increase physical activity and improve eating habits.

But there's no easy or cheap way to transform an ailing care system into one that promotes health and wellness. At every level, from the way doctors are trained to the way they're reimbursed for services, the importance of prevention is overshadowed by a focus on treating illness and a reliance on expensive medical technologies and procedures.

"Health reform gives us a great opportunity to shift the focus," said Mike Barry, executive director of the American College of Preventive Medicine. "Instead of pulling out a prescription pad, we want to see physicians prescribing lifestyle changes."

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Ways to take control of your health

(Chicago Tribune) If you're ready to take control of your health, start by washing your hands for 15 to 20 seconds… Doing this simple act, while avoiding certain behaviors -- smoking, excessive drinking and eating too much -- can dramatically improve your health, said internist William Meller, who specializes in evolutionary medicine... Prevention goes well beyond the mammograms, prostate screenings or blood tests that we can get at the doctor's office. It's the little steps you take that can keep you healthy. "Ideally, prevention should also emphasize healthy lifestyles, a practice that isn't only health-conscious, but (is) inexpensive," said James Pivarnik, president of the American College of Sports Medicine.

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Community: But there’s more to it than what’s recommended here. When I was diagnosed with breast cancer, having surgery seemed like a given, as though I had no choice. But after the surgery, when I sat down with my medical oncologist, she showed me how the various additional treatments would benefit me, and said, her very words, “We will treat you whatever you decide.” I was astounded. Never in my life had a doctor told me I had a choice in what treatments I would undergo. It was a bit frightening to take on that responsibility, but also empowering. And it has made me bolder in dealing with my other doctors.

More of us are gathering our own information about what ails us and are informing our doctors about what we find. The doctor/patient relationship needs to be more collaborative, as it is in the cancer treatment world.

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Free, easy, and anonymous tools for tracking your health

TheCarrot.com provides easy-to-use tools for tracking your life for a variety of topics including health, nutrition, fitness, and medicines—all within a familiar calendar format. Through this free, anonymous service, you gain a comprehensive view of your health that helps you identify areas of improvement and goal-setting.

TheCarrot.com works with your lifestyle and health goals—you decide how often and how much detail to enter. Then, with this data, you create reports to share with your doctor, nutritionist or fitness trainer.

TheCarrot.com lets you track your health data in multiple ways—by entering data numerically, textually, and photographically.

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Millions of Americans Don't Get Enough Sleep

(HealthDay News) Only one-third of adults say they are getting enough sleep every night, a new U.S. government report shows…

Not getting enough sleep has been tied to mental distress, depression, anxiety, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol and certain risk behaviors including cigarette smoking, physical inactivity and heavy drinking…

Getting at least seven hours of sleep results in greater alertness, better work performance and better quality of life, [Dr. Bruce] Nolan said. "People who get too little or too much sleep are associated with more health problems, including work problems, performance problems and productivity problems," he noted.

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After Age 55, Workplace Stress Seems to Decline

(HealthDay News) Feeling stressed at work? If you're younger than 50, it might get worse -- at least for a while.

Researchers from the University of Nottingham in England report that stress levels peak when people reach their early 50s but start to dip as they move toward old age.

That's not necessarily good news, either: Work-related stress apparently stays with people into retirement…

"Work-related stress is thought to be responsible for more lost working days than any other cause, and it is becoming clear that it is also one factor affecting older workers' willingness and ability to remain in the labor force," the report's lead author, Amanda Griffiths … said… "Therefore, protecting tomorrow's older workers, as well as today's, will pay dividends as older workers will form a major part of tomorrow's workforce."

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Community: In my experience, companies are trying very hard to get rid of older workers and keep them out. They’ll have to change their ways to get us back into the work force.

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Upping fiber intake could help defeat belly fat

(Reuters Health) Eating just a little bit more fiber could have a big impact in trimming the waistlines of America's young people, new research shows.

Latino adolescents and teens who increased their fiber intake over a two-year period had significant decreases in the amount of fat around their waists, while young people whose fiber intake fell saw their bellies expand, Dr. Jaimie N. Davis … and her colleagues found.

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Community: Wouldn’t that work for us older folks, too?

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Exercise Keeps Dangerous Visceral Fat Away A Year After Weight Loss, Study Finds

(Science Daily) A study conducted by exercise physiologists in the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Department of Human Studies finds that as little as 80 minutes a week of aerobic or resistance training helps not only to prevent weight gain, but also to inhibit a regain of harmful visceral fat one year after weight loss…

Unlike subcutaneous fat that lies just under the skin and is noticeable, visceral fat lies in the abdominal cavity under the abdominal muscle. Visceral fat is more dangerous than subcutaneous fat because it often surrounds vital organs. The more visceral fat one has, the greater is the chance of developing Type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

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Tai Chi May Help Ward Off Knee Pain in Seniors

(HealthDay News) Want to improve that osteoarthritis in your knee? New research suggests that regular Tai Chi exercise can reduce pain and help your knee function better.

"Tai Chi is a mind-body approach that appears to be an applicable treatment for older adults with knee osteoarthritis," Dr. Chenchen Wang, co-author of a study.

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Exercise helps lymphoma patients

(UPI) Canadian researchers say aerobic exercise benefits lymphoma patients -- even those on chemotherapy.

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Biofield Therapies: Helpful Or Full Of Hype?

(Science Daily) A significant number of patients use biofield therapies -- Reiki, therapeutic touch and healing touch -- despite very little research proving that they work. These techniques have been used over millennia in various cultural communities to heal physical and mental disorders. They have only recently been under the scrutiny of current Western scientific methods.

In a detailed review of 66 clinical studies looking at biofield therapies in different patient populations with a range of ailments, [California researchers] examine the strength of the evidence for the efficacy of these complementary therapies. They show that overall, published work on biofield therapies is of average quality -- in scientific terms.

Bearing that in mind, they find strong evidence that biofield therapies reduce pain intensity in free-living populations, and moderate evidence that they are effective at lowering pain in hospitalized patients as well as in patients with cancer.

There is also moderate evidence that these therapies ease agitated behaviors in dementia and moderate evidence that they reduce anxiety in hospitalized patients. There is inconclusive evidence for the efficacy of biofield therapies on symptoms of fatigue and quality of life in cancer patients, as well as for overall pain reduction, and anxiety management in cardiovascular patients.

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The Alternative Medicine Cabinet: Aloe Vera for Burns

(New York Times) Aloe vera gel may very well be the crown jewel of skin-soothing treatments for damaged skin. And for good reason: Numerous studies have provided evidence that it can heal the minor burns and scrapes that a harsh world can inflict on sensitive skin. Scientists suspect that has to do with the gel’s anti-inflammatory properties…

[F]or severe wounds that go beyond superficial damage to the skin, medical attention is needed. But for sunburns, blisters and small burns that cause minor pain, redness or damage that is limited to the top layers of skin, aloe vera could make a difference.

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Scientists Discover Influenza's Achilles Heel: Antioxidants

(Science Daily) As the nation copes with a shortage of vaccines for H1N1 influenza, a team of Alabama researchers have raised hopes that they have found an Achilles' heel for all strains of the flu -- antioxidants…

[T]hey show that antioxidants -- the same substances found in plant-based foods -- might hold the key in preventing the flu virus from wreaking havoc on our lungs.

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Is There a 'Bad Driver' Gene?

(HealthDay News) Are you a bad driver? Maybe you can blame it on your genes.

In a small study, researchers found that people with a gene variation performed 20 percent worse on simulated driving tests and did as poorly a few days later. Almost one in three Americans have the variation, the team said.

"These people make more errors from the get-go, and they forget more of what they learned after time away," said Dr. Steven Cramer.

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Stroke Centers May Offer Best Shot at Recovery

(HealthDay News) Stroke patients taken directly to a designated stroke center are much more likely to receive the clot-busting drug tPA than those taken to the nearest hospital, says a new study.

If given within the first few hours after a stroke, tPA (tissue plasminogen activator) can reduce stroke-related disability.

The study grew out of a citywide program in Toronto that trains paramedics to screen for stroke and to take stroke patients to one of three regional stroke centers.

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Epilepsy Drugs Could Treat Alzheimer's And Parkinson's

(Science Daily) Researchers in the USA have discovered a potential new function for anti-epileptic drugs in treating neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The study … found that neurons in the brain were protected after treatment with T-type calcium-channel blockers, which are commonly used to treat epilepsy.

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Helper T Cell's Effect Raises Possibility Of Cellular Therapy, Vaccine Development

(Science Daily) A specific type of T helper cell awakens the immune system to the stealthy threat of cancer and triggers an attack of killer T cells custom-made to destroy the tumors, scientists from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center report…

The role of Th17, one of only four known types of T helper cell, opens a possible avenue for overcoming cancer's ability to suppress or hide from the body's immune system, said senior author Chen Dong, Ph.D.

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Study: Costa Rica has most 'happy years'

(UPI) An update of the World Database of Happiness calculates Costa Rica is at the top of the list for quality of life in 148 countries, Dutch researchers say.

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Diet Linked To Healthier Immune Systems

(Science Daily) Insoluble dietary fibre, or roughage, not only keeps you regular, say Australian scientists, it also plays a vital role in the immune system, keeping certain diseases at bay…

The conclusions drawn from the current research provide some of the most compelling reasons yet for eating considerably more unprocessed whole foods -- fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts and seeds.

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Diet, Exercise Thwart Diabetes: Study

(HealthDay News) Diet and exercise can keep diabetes at bay for a decade, cutting the risk for the disease by more than a third in the most susceptible people, a new study finds.

About 11 percent of U.S. adults (24 million) have diabetes, mostly type 2, which is linked to poor diet and sedentary lifestyle. In addition, 57 million overweight adults have higher-than-normal blood sugar levels, which raise the risk of a heart attack or stroke and the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes, researchers say.

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Planning a Move? Look for These 4 Features That Make a Healthy Neighborhood

(U.S. News & World Report) "Some neighborhoods encourage people to make healthful choices by providing the amenities and opportunities for those choices," says Jennifer Black, lead author of a review about neighborhoods and obesity published last year in Nutrition Reviews. Other neighborhoods have barriers to physical activity and to making healthful dietary choices, such as high crime rates or no (or limited) access to shopping or services within walking distance, she says. So find a place where you "feel safe to live, move, walk, work, shop, and eat," as well as participate in community activities that meet your social needs, Black says. Here are some specific things to look for to make your next neighborhood a healthy one:

Walkability of the neighborhood, including sidewalks. Some new neighborhoods that encourage physical activity are built so that residents can walk to obtain nearly all of the services they need—dry cleaning, restaurants, hair salons, barber shops, gyms, and more…

Nearby parks with walking trails, bicycle paths, and playgrounds. The more you get moving, the better, experts say, and trails and paths set aside for bikers and walkers may encourage you to be more active rather than stay home watching television…

Ability to add some movement to your commute. "If you're engaging in physical activity to commute to work or get around, then that's less time that you have to be doing intentional exercise," Auchincloss says. So that time you spend walking to or from the bus or subway counts as physical activity, too.

Access to healthful foods and services. Many people choose to eat out rather than prepare food at home, but restaurant foods tend to include larger portions and higher calories, Auchincloss says. So instead, when looking for a new neighborhood, check for nearby grocery stores or farmers' markets that sell fresh fruits and vegetables.

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Rural poor have barriers to healthy eating

(UPI) People living in poverty in rural Oregon often know what kinds of food they should be eating but often they can't afford healthier food, researchers said.

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Why Fish Oils Help With Conditions Like Rheumatoid Arthritis How They Could Help Even More

(Science Daily) New research … has revealed precisely why taking fish oils can help with conditions like rheumatoid arthritis.

[R]esearchers describe how the body converts an ingredient found in fish oils into another chemical called Resolvin D2 and how this chemical reduces the inflammation that leads to a variety of diseases.

The research also suggests that Resolvin D2 could be the basis for a new treatment for diseases including sepsis, stroke and arthritis. Unlike other anti-inflammatory drugs, this chemical does not seem to suppress the immune system.

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House Plan May Tackle Long-Term Care for Seniors and Disabled

(U.S. News & World Report) A healthcare bill in the House is likely to have in it a new insurance program to help cover the cost of long-term care for seniors and the disabled, the Associated Press reports. The voluntary program, which has been introduced in the past as the Community Living Assistance Services and Supports Act, is designed to help families pay for nursinghome care, which costs an average of $70,000 a year, according to the AP. It would also help fund home care with money from premiums of, initially, an estimated $123 each month. Consumers would pay into the program for five years before they could qualify for benefits—so in its early stages, the program would receive more than it disbursed, according to estimates by the Congressional Budget Office.

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Just a little exercise can boost body image

(LiveScience) Want to feel good about yourself? Just get off the couch and do a little exercise. You don't even have to get real serious, a new study finds…

The study found no difference in body image improvement between people who met the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines by exercising at least 30 minutes a day five days a week and those who did not, [study author Heather] Hausenblas said…

The study showed slightly larger benefits from exercise in terms of improving body image for women than men…

Also, older people were most likely to report enhanced body images from exercise…

While the frequency of exercise mattered for boosting body perceptions, there were no differences for the duration, intensity, length or type of exercise, the study found.

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Community: Is it possible that improving our body image could be part of higher quality of life, which is associated with maintaining a greater will to live, resulting in a longer (and happier) life?

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Obesity Linked To Fewer Neighborhood Food Options

(Science Daily) Contrary to what you might believe, living near a variety of restaurants, convenience stores, supermarkets and even fast food outlets actually lowers your risk for obesity, according to a new study from the University of Utah.

Surprisingly, people who live more than a half mile away from any food outlets are the ones who tend to be fatter…

The study suggests that placing restrictions on fast food outlets may not be effective, but that initiatives to increase healthy neighborhood food options may reduce individuals' obesity risks, especially if focused on low-income neighborhoods.

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Disruption Of Circadian Rhythms Affects Both Brain And Body, Mouse Study Finds

(Science Daily) A new study has found that chronic disruption of one of the most basic circadian (daily) rhythms -- the day/night cycle -- leads to weight gain, impulsivity, slower thinking, and other physiological and behavioral changes in mice, similar to those observed in people who experience shift work or jet lag…

"Our findings have implications for humans," said lead author Ilia Karatsoreos, PhD… "In our modern industrialized society, the disruption of our individual circadian rhythms has become commonplace, from shift work and jet lag to the constant presence of electric lighting. These disruptions are not only a nuisance, they can also lead to serious health and safety problems," he said.

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Western Diet Fuels Spike In Blood Pressure Of Canada's Inuit

(Science Daily) A move from a traditional diet to the sodium-laden Western diet is fuelling a spike in the blood pressure of the Inuit in Canada's North...

"This is a population currently undergoing a significant dietary transition away from their traditional diet − which includes large amounts of fish and marine products − to a Western diet," Dr. [Marie-Ludvine] Chateau-Degat [said]. "Both diastolic and systolic blood pressures increased with amount of sodium consumed."

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Eat, drink and -- just maybe -- prevent diabetes

(Los Angeles Times) What you eat may help reduce the risk of diabetes, says a recently released report from Harvard Medical School. Among its findings:

Coffee: One cup a day is linked to a 13% reduction in diabetes risk. Two to three cups a day is linked to a 42% reduction in risk.

Alcohol: Men who have two to four drinks a week had a 26% lower risk of diabetes, compared with abstainers. Those who have one or more drinks a day had a 43% lower risk.[*]

Nuts: Women who ate nuts or peanut butter five times a week had a 20% to 30% lower risk than women who only rarely eat nuts or peanut butter.

Fiber: People who eat a diet rich in whole grains have a 40% lower risk of diabetes compared with those who eat a low-grain diet.

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Community: *But there are also dangers with drinking alcohol.

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Cancer Protection in a Fruit?

(Lifescript) Pomegranates may be taking off in the U.S., but they’ve been a staple fruit in the Middle East for thousands of years. In fact, the Bible mentions it more than two dozen times.

But it’s not the royal fruit’s rich history that has us picking up pomegranates. The odd-looking baseball-sized fruit is packed with vitamins and nutrients, and scientists are studying its role in fighting heart disease, cancer and other ailments.

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Scientists say curry compound kills cancer cells

(Reuters) A molecule found in a curry ingredient can kill oesophageal cancer cells in the laboratory, suggesting it might be developed as an anti-cancer treatment, scientists said on Wednesday.

Researchers … treated oesophageal cancer cells with curcumin -- a chemical found in the spice turmeric, which gives curries a distinctive yellow color -- and found it started to kill cancer cells within 24 hours.

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Old, New Pap Methods Equally Good, Dutch Study Finds

(HealthDay News) Traditional Pap tests and the newer liquid-based cytology are equally reliable in screening for cervical cancer, a new study has found.

In the United States, liquid-based cytology testing has all but replaced the traditional Pap test…

The advantage of liquid-based cytology is that it also screens for human papillomavirus (HPV), which causes most cervical cancers.

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